What is the “50 Percent Rule” in real estate investing?

    This rule provides a simple approach to calculating ongoing costs and assessing a specific property’s profitability. It serves as a quick “back-of-the-napkin” math model to determine if a property is worth considering for purchase.

    When buying multi-family properties, I used this rule as a starting point – a preliminary assessment, if you will. It offered a quick way for me to decide whether to invest any time in a particular property or move on.

    Implementing the 50 percent rule will help you quickly identify and acquire profitable properties that contribute to the growth of your business.  Let’s explore the details of how this works!


    • The 50 Percent Rule in real estate is a simple way to estimate if a property is worth investing in.
    • It suggests that about half of rental income should cover operating expenses like maintenance, property management, insurance, etc.
    • However, it’s not foolproof, and individual property factors, market conditions, and investor goals should also be considered.
    • Other rules like the 1 Percent Rule and 70 Percent Rule serve different purposes in real estate investing.

    What is the 50 percent rule?

    The 50 percent rule states that about half of the rental income should cover operating expenses.

    These estimated expenses include maintenance, repairs, property management fees, insurance, utilities, property taxes, and vacancies.

    By subtracting this estimated 50% from the gross income, investors can get a rough idea of the property’s potential net operating income (NOI).


    Applying the 50 percent rule on operating costs

    To apply the 50% rule, multiply the gross rent by 50 percent. This provides an estimate of the monthly operating expenses.

    For example, if a rental property generates $3,000 in gross monthly rental income, the estimated monthly operating expenses would be around $1,500.

    Actual expenses may differ depending on rental property type, location, size, market conditions, and the investor’s specific circumstances. But, this rule provides a helpful starting point for assessing the financial success of an investment property.


    Benefits of using the 50 percent rule in real estate

    There are several benefits to using the 50% rule in real estate investing:

    1. Realistic cash flow estimate: The rule gives you an assessment of the property’s cash flow potential by accounting for a significant portion of operating expenses.
    2. Decision-making tool: The 50% rule helps determine a property’s viability and profitability before making investment decisions.  You can quickly evaluate whether a property will likely generate positive cash flow.
    3. Rent setting and purchase price negotiation: The rule helps you to set the correct rental rates for your properties. It also helps you negotiate purchase prices by providing a framework for estimating expenses and potential returns.

    Limitations and considerations

    While the 50% rule is a helpful guideline, there are some limitations:

    1. Property variations: Each property is unique, and expenses may differ from the rule’s estimates. Property condition, age, location, and local market dynamics can influence costs.
    2. Due diligence required: When assessing investment property, rely on deeper analysis in addition to the rule. Conduct thorough research, including rental property inspection, financial analysis, and market research.

    When to avoid using the 50% rule?

    There are situations where the 50% rule may not be suitable:

    • New or well-maintained properties: Actual expenses may be lower than 50% of the income for more recent properties. Analyze each property instead of relying solely on the rule.
    • Unique property types: Some properties, like luxury or vacation rentals, may have higher expenses, while properties with long-term or triple net leases may have lower ones. Property characteristics should be considered when assessing costs.
    • Market variations: Different real estate markets have different expense ratios. The 50% rule may not reflect specific market conditions. Research and analysis of comparable properties can provide more accurate estimates.
    • Investor goals and risk tolerance: Each investor’s objectives and risk tolerance differ. Some investors may allocate a higher percentage for expenses as a conservative approach. This can help manage risks and unforeseen costs.

    Breakdown of expenses in the 50% rule in real estate

    According to this rule, approximately 50% of the property’s gross income should go to operating expenses. While the breakdown of costs can vary depending on various factors such as property type, location, and market conditions, here is a percentage breakdown commonly used in the 50% rule:

    1. Repairs and maintenance: This category typically accounts for around 10-15% of the gross income. It includes expenses for routine repairs, maintenance, and upkeep of the property.
    2. Property management fees: Hire a property management company to take charge of the day-to-day operations. Their fees generally range from 8-12% of the gross income. This percentage depends on the specific services the management company provides.
    3. Property taxes: typically comprise around 5-10% of the gross income. The percentage depends on the local property tax rates and the property’s assessed value.
    1. Insurance: These costs usually range from 5-10% of the gross income and include coverage for property damage, liability, and potential loss of rental income.
    2. Vacancy and debt: Vacancy and debt are estimated to occupy around 5-10% of the gross income. This factor accounts for the potential loss of rental income during periods of vacancy and any uncollectible rent due to tenant non-payment.
    3. Utilities: The percentage allocated to utilities can range from 5-10% of the gross income. It includes expenses for water, electricity, gas, trash collection, and other utility costs.

    The 50% rule does not account for mortgage payments, capital improvements, or HOA fees.

    Other commonly used rules

    1 percent rule

    The 1 percent rule is often used in real estate investing to quickly assess a rental property’s potential profitability.

    According to this rule, the monthly rental income of a property should be at least 1% of its total acquisition cost.

    For example, if a property costs $200,000 to purchase, the monthly rental income should ideally be $2,000 or more (1% of $200,000).

    This rule helps real estate investors evaluate whether a property has the potential to generate high cash flow and provide a satisfactory return on investment.

    The 1% rule does not consider other factors such as operating expenses, financing costs, vacancy rates, or market conditions. So, conduct an analysis and consider all relevant factors before making investment decisions.


    70 percent rule

    The 70 percent rule is utilized in real estate investing, particularly in fix-and-flip or renovation projects.

    This rule helps investors determine the maximum purchase price they should pay for a property to make sure a reasonable investment.

    According to the 70% rule, investors should aim for a property for no more than 70% of its after-repair value (ARV) minus estimated repair costs. The ARV refers to the estimated value of the property after it has been renovated or repaired.

    Here’s how the 70% Rule works: multiply the ARV by 0.70 (70%) and subtract the estimated repair costs. The result should be the maximum amount an investor should pay for the property.

    For example, if the estimated value of a property is $300,000 and the estimated repair costs amount to $30,000, the maximum purchase price according to the 70% rule would be:

    $300,000 x 0.70 – $30,000 = $180,000

    By sticking to the 70% rule, you can be sure you have enough to cover renovation, carrying, and closing costs and still make a reasonable profit when selling the property.

    Like all of these “rules,” the 70% rule should serve as a guideline rather than a strict rule.

    Market conditions, location, property, and individual investment goals can vary.  Conduct additional research, analysis, and due diligence to determine if you should move forward with a property.


    How do these rules differ from the 50 percent rule?

    While the 50% rule primarily focuses on estimating operating expenses, the 1 percent rule and the 70 percent rule serve different purposes:

    Differences from the 50 percent rule:

    The 1 percent rule and the 70 percent rule differ from the 50% rule regarding their focus and application.

    While the 50% rule estimates operating expenses for rental properties, the 1 percent rule evaluates cash flow potential, and the 70 percent rule guides property acquisition and renovation decisions.

    Unlike the 50%, which is a general guideline applicable to various types of investment properties, the 1 percent rule and the 70 percent rule have more specific applications – assessing rental properties and for fix-and-flip projects.

    Each rule serves a unique purpose and guides in evaluating investment opportunities. Understanding these rules and applying them appropriately increases your chances of success.



    The 50 percent rule is a helpful tool to help real estate investors estimate operating costs and assess investment opportunities.

    You can use this rule to make better decisions about purchasing properties.  The guideline helps provide realistic expectations for cash flow and evaluate a property’s potential profitability.

    I used this rule with my multi-family properties to see if a property was worth exploring.  I didn’t want to go too far into the due diligence process and waste a bunch of time if the property wasn’t profitable.  The goal is to use a rule like this to quickly evaluate and move on to the next property if the numbers don’t pencil out.

    The rule is a general guideline. Use it along with thorough research and analysis of each rental property.


    50 percent rule on operating expenses FAQs

    What does the 50% rule include?

    The expenses included in the 50% rule are property taxes, insurance, repairs and maintenance, utilities, vacancy costs, reserves, and property management costs.

    Is the 50% rule foolproof?

    No, it is not foolproof. The 50% rule should be used as a starting point for expense estimation, but investors should thoroughly analyze their specific property and market conditions to refine the estimates.

    Consulting with real estate agents, property managers, and accountants can provide insights into the specific expenses associated with a rental property.